Non Communicable Diseases
Diseases, whether communicable and non communicable diseases are a threat to your body. So let us first understand what is communicable and non communicable diseases are?
Communicable diseases are the one which spreads through pathogens from one person to another. Non communicable diseases are not transmitted by any infection or any physical contact while Communicable diseases can be transmitted by blood, bodily fluids, saliva, mucus and sexual contact.
Communicable diseases spread by physical contacts with infectious person like shaking hands, touch, intercourse, contact with any surface which is contaminated, infection in air.
Non Communicable Diseases
Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are the conditions or diseases which are not caused by transmission of infections like that in communicable diseases. NCDs are non-transferable or are not contagious.
Non communicable diseases are chronic diseases which affect the human body for long-term.
Non communicable diseases kill over 36 million people every year.
Types Of Non Communicable Diseases
There are many diseases which are due to hereditary, genetic or due to lifestyle and environment which causes non communicable diseases.
- Chronic respiratory diseases.
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder that is COPD and asthma.
Some auto-immune diseases like trauma, malnutrition, mental disorders, fractures, hormonal conditions and poisoning which are caused due to disturbance in body’s defense mechanism.
Causes of Non Communicable Diseases
Non communicable diseases (NCDs) are caused by improper lifestyle use of tobacco, smoking, abuse of alcohol, and lack in physical activity or exercise and poor consumption of food like use of more amount salt, sugar, fats, etc.
Some non communicable diseases (NCDs) are inherited that is they are transferred from one generation to another. Inherited Diseases are transferred from their parents to off-springs and thus treating them is a difficult task. Either gene therapy is given to treat them or any by any other possible means.
This factors leads to non communicable diseases like heart diseases, cancer, diabetes and other chronic non communicable diseases.
Symptoms of Non Communicable Disease
Signs and symptoms of non communicable diseases may be same. Sometimes it is even possible to have non communicable disease without having any visible signs or symptoms. Different diseases under non communicable diseases will have different symptoms.
Like cardiovascular diseases will have a symptoms of sudden chest pain, irregular heartbeats, and cardiac cycle disturbance and may have a sign of fever.
Cancer will include symptoms like baldness, weakness, fatigue, etc.
Alzheimer’s disease as it is dementia. Memory loss in people of over age of 60 is common.
Risk factors of Non Communicable Diseases
These factors are the chances of getting the diseases due to some factors. Below this level there is less risk of the causes of the diseases and above this level the risk increases. Risk factors for non-communicable diseases are sub-divided into two categories according to control over them.
If no control over non communicable diseases:
If control over non communicable diseases:
- Physical activity.
- Alcohol abuse.
- Amount of food.
- Amount of salt, sugar, fatty acids intake.
- Blood pressure.
How to Prevent Non Communicable Diseases
Prevention is better than cure. And to prevent non communicable disease keep a check on risk factors and try to reduce them.
Doing physical activity and exercises daily. Add this to your routine for prevention of non communicable diseases.
Keep a check on your diet. High consumption of salt, sugar and fatty acids may cause high or low blood pressure, diabetes and blockage in cardiovascular regions respectively.
Prevent yourself from the exposure of UV rays to be prevented by cancer and other non communicable diseases.
Add fruits and green leafy vegetables to your diet as they are the best oxidative and free radical scavengers.
Self Monitoring Skills to Prevent Non Communicable Diseases
There are several techniques through which one can do self-monitoring to prevent non communicable diseases. Some of them are:
Periodic check of body weight:
Check your body weight at a time interval so that you will be aware of either your weight is increasing or decreasing. This is mandatory for people who are obese. Obesity is a risk factor for non communicable disease.
Check Blood pressure at home by Blood Pressure measuring devices:
There are various blood pressure measuring devices through which blood pressure can be monitored and checked either its high or low. The normal Blood pressure is 120 mmhg to 80 mmhg.
Per day dietary intake:
Keep a regular check on consumption of salt and sugar in your diet. High salt in food can lead to heart stroke, kidney diseases and other heart diseases. And high sugar consumption will lead to diabetes type 2 and weight gain in the body making a person obese.
Intake of omega-3 fatty acids in diet can help reduce heart diseases. It contains Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Decosaheptanoic acid (DHA) of omega-3 fatty acids reduce high cholesterol and risk of high blood pressure.
Duration of physical activity done per day:
Physical activities and exercises are mandatory for proper functioning of human body. Try to take out at-least 15-20 minutes from your routine and do exercises that will benefit your health and prevent non communicable diseases.
Eliminate smoking and alcohol from your life:
One puff of cigarette leads to 100 times damage to the lungs of human body. Addiction of smoking and alcohol gives very bad effect to the body and leads to various diseases not only non communicable diseases.
Yes! It is not easy for a person who is addicted but try to eliminate these habits one by one.
Five Examples of Non Communicable Diseases
Osteoporosis is a non communicable disease and it is a medical condition in which bones becomes brittle and weak. Bone density in body decreases and it doesn’t produces enough bone.
Osteoporosis is also known “Porous Bone”. Bones becomes so brittle that it may fall due to coughing also.
Mostly, this occurs in wrist, hip and spine. Osteoporosis occurs in both males and females. Mostly, females after menopause.
Cancer is non-transmissible or non communicable disease. It is the proliferated growth of the normal cells of the body that becomes malicious due to some factors like UV rays, some cancerous foods, etc.
Cancer in women can affect breast, lung, and cervix and in men it can affect prostate, lung, etc. The most common of all is lung cancer in both males and females.
Alzheimer’s disease occur mainly over the people of age around 60. Alzheimer is also one of a non communicable diseases known as dementia.
It causes memory loss in people who leads to getting lost, loss in functions, personality change and delusions.
Heart disease includes many heart disease and disorders related to heart. This non communicable disease includes the fatigue, sudden pain, irregular rhythms of the heart.
Heart diseases includes angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, Coronary Artery Disease, high Blood pressure, Cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, Peripheral artery disease, Stroke and Congenital heart disease.
Diabetes is a medical condition in which sugar or glucose in the body increase.
There are two types of diabetes. Diabetes type 1 in which the ability of pancreatic cells reduces, it produce very less insulin or no insulin. Diabetes type 2 in which body processes sugar or glucose gets disturbed.
And other types of diabetes are: Prediabetes and Gestational diabetes.
Prediabetes: In this type of diabetes, the sugar level is high but not that high to be diabetes type 2.
Gestational diabetes: This type of diabetes effects pregnant women. In pregnant women, the blood glucose level increases.
Insulin is a ductless and peptide hormone present inside the β- cells of the islets of the pancreas. Insulin helps the body to utilize sugar present in the body which is taken through diet. It prevents the blood glucose or blood sugar level from getting high.
The condition when the blood glucose level is high is called as hyperglycemia.
Most Common Non Communicable Diseases
The most common of all the non communicable diseases are those which affects the most vital parts and organ of the body.
- Cancer: Cancer is the uncontrollable growth of the cells of the body. There are of variety of types of cancer. They lead to baldness in humans. The group of cells is known as tumor. Tumor is of two types: Benign tumor and malignant tumor.
Benign tumor is one which doesn’t spread to whole body and doesn’t destroys other organ of the body.
Malignant tumor is one which spreads to whole body and destroys the other organ of the body as well.
Proto oncogenes are genes present in everyone’s body, this proto oncogene is activated by some external factors due to which they get converted into oncogenes. These oncogenes do proliferated growth of the cells of the human body.
Cancer is of different types on the basis of the targeted organ. Examples: Breast cancer, Blood cancer, Lung cancer, Leukemia, etc.
- Obesity: Being obese is a medical condition when there is extreme increase in body weight of an individual. Body Mass Index (BMI) is calculated by the weight of an individual to the square of individual height. Above 30 kg/m2 is considered as overweight.
Thus obesity leads to many health problems. Obesity is caused by any different problems like lack of physical activity, excessive eating.
Body Mass Index Limits are as follows:
An individual is considered underweight if Body Mass Index is 18.5 kg/m2.
Normal Body Mass Index 18.5 to 25 kg/m2.
Overweight Body Mass Index 25 to 30 kg/m2.
Obese- 30 kg/m2.
- Heart Diseases: Heart problems like congestive heart failure, angina pectoris caused by over exercising, etc.
Non Communicable vs Communicable Diseases
Non Communicable Diseases Communicable Diseases
Gradual onset Sudden onset
Multiple causes Single cause
Long natural history Short natural history
Prolonged treatment Short treatment
Prolonged follow-up Short follow-up
Non Communicable Diseases Treatment Options
Better to prevent it than to treat. Keep regular check on what work you do to improve your lifestyle.
- Alzheimer’s Disease: As there is no proper cure and treatment for this disease. Medication and drugs can improve symptoms of this disease.
- Asthma: Asthma is a medical condition in which breathing and respiratory problems occur. It is also called as Bronchial Asthma, it affects the bronchial of the lungs of the body.
It can be treated by inhalers which gives relief to the lungs and respiratory system of the body. Inhalers contain certain drugs which helps to give relief.
Example: Salbutamol. In severe cases of asthma longer-acting inhalers and it acts by keeping airways open.
Example: Tiotropium Bromide.
- Cataracts: It is the problems to the eyes. In normal condition, the lenses of the eyes is clear. Clouding of the lenses of the eyes occur in this medical condition in the human body.
Treatment of cataracts includes replacing of the clouded lenses with the clear artificial lens. It is generally an out-patient procedure.
- Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Chronic Kidney Disease involve severe damage to the kidneys of the body. This medical condition leads to renal failure. Chronic Kidney Disease occurs in stages. The early stages can be treated easily.
The last stages of CKD is treated by medication and thus its symptoms can be prevented. Severe conditions of Chronic Kidney Diseases requires dialysis; filtering of blood through machine or transplantation of the kidney is required.
Kidney diseases affects the metabolism of the body and thus causes hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.
- Osteoporosis: It is weakness of the bones which causes its fall due to it becomes brittle. Osteoporosis can be treated by medication, supplements and modification in diet. Exercises are done to bear the weight of the body and prevent the bone weakness.