Different Types of cancer – Definition & Causes You Must Know About!
Death can come to you in any form and these types of cancer are the worst carriers of death, as someone rightly said “cancer has no answer”, up to which extent it is true? Let’s find out.
“Cancer”, it may seem as a combination of six alphabets but the reality is far harsher than it seems, people in our country believe in astrologers and also to their predictions and astrology.
Some of the astrologers see and study their hands and the positions of their stars, alignments of planets and based on that they predict how much they are going to live how happy they are going to be in near future.
Trust me guys if those above mentioned six alphabets combine in your life, in reality, then it won’t be mattering how does your stars are aligned and every prediction will go in vain, that lethal is the effect of cancer along with all the other types of cancer.
What is cancer?
Cancer is basically an assembly of hundreds of different diseases, and each one of the diseases is accountable for the spread of the abnormal cells in the various parts of the body.
And because of this reason, the person suffering from cancer or any of the types of cancer goes through several biological and genetic changes resulting in the great loss of the healthy normal growth cells and tissues of the body which ultimately leads to the instability and metastasis.
There are many of the several reasons by which these types of cancer prevail in our society like the frequent consumption of tobacco, getting exposed to some kind of chemical which your body is not supposed to have, radiation and also getting it spread by a person or organism who is already having these diseases.
Flashbacks of this disease
Now the thing is! If this disease is so dangerous then how does it kick-started? As some of the earliest of the evidence which has been found among the fossilized bone tumors in ancient Egypt, as cancer is a known disease since ancient time along with the other types of cancer.
As the researchers have also found in their manuscripts as there was some kind of bony skull destruction as seen in cancer of the head and neck was found.
Considered as the father of the medicine the great Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC) was the first in the history to use the term “cancer”, he believed that our human body has 4 humors or body fluids as blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
And based on that he suggested that when an imbalance of these humor takes place in the human body with an excess of black bile causes and leads to cancer and later on this theory was also called as humoral theory, and as the time passed on and with it many theories came about this deadly disease and studies regarding these diseases took a leap.
Later the study of cancer and the types of cancer was termed as oncology and through the centuries of study, it was found that cancer could occur anywhere and in any part of our body. The theory of Hippocrates remained one of the popular theories based on cancers until the 19th century as the discovery of cell took place and related to cells many other studies and theories also evolved regarding this one of the deadliest diseases the world has ever seen.
What are the different types of cancer:
Basically, there are five main categories by which we can group types of cancer and these five main categories are as follows:
This is one of the most known types of cancer, begins in the skin or in the tissues of our body that covers the internal organs, as this is commonly known as the skin cancer.
Basically these unwanted tissues and cells it starts getting developed on the epithelial tissue of the body, and when there is uncontrolled growth that arises in the skin’s basal cells known as basal cell carcinoma, generally look like open sores and red patches, now there are many other subtypes of carcinoma which are as follows:
– It’s one of the several types of cancer that can occur in the different parts of the body, some of these types of cancer have a glandular origin, mainly defined as neoplasia of the outermost layering of the human body that is epithelial tissue and it also has a glandular origin.
Glandular characteristics or sometimes both, these types of cancer if one of the parts of a larger grouping of carcinomas, the most common types of cancer of skin found in our society are adenocarcinomas.
The some of the common examples of adenocarcinoma are as follows:
Cervical Cancer –
It is cancer which arises from the cervix, it happens due to the abnormal growth of cells that possess the ability to spread and infecting the different parts of the body organs, some of the symptoms of cervical cancer that may include in this are vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain or pain during the sexual intercourse.
Pancreatic cancer –
It happens when the cells in the pancreas abnormally grow, it becomes like a glandular organ just behind the stomach, and with consequences, it begins to multiply and divide and forms a mass like the other types of cancer.
This mass of unwanted gathering has the full capacity to invade the other parts of the body too.
Now some of the pancreatic cancer symptoms are like pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, unexplained weight loss, nausea, constipation is one of the common signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer.
Prostate Cancer –
There are certain types of cancer which occur in the prostate gland in the male reproductive system, it is one of the slow types of cancer which grows but some of them at times they do grow quickly depending on the situation.
Same as other types of cancer the prostate cancer can also spread to the other healthy body parts mainly the parts of bones and also lymph’s nodes, now some of the symptoms of prostate cancer are as follows:
In the early days the prostate cancer has no clear seeing of signs and symptoms but in most of the cases, it also shows similar kind of sign as same as the other similar disease like hematuria and dysuria.
The prostate cancer is mainly related to urinary problems and dysfunctions as the glands are surrounded by the prostatic urethra.
Esophageal Cancer –
Like the other types of cancer the esophagus gets affected by the abnormal growth of the cells then it is termed as esophageal cancer and with time the cancer cells can also spread to the liver as well.
Difficulty in the time of eating while swallowing the food, frequent weight loss, enlargement of the glands around the collarbone and it can also be seen with coughing and vomiting blood are the some of the types of the symptoms of esophageal cancer.
Stomach Cancer –
Commonly known as gastric cancer and one of the most common types of cancer known to the beings which develop in the inner lining of the stomach and this cancer also spreads to the other organs and parts of the body like lymph nodes, lower abdomen, bones, liver, and lungs.
One of the most common names for the stomach cancer is gastric cancer, and when there is abnormal growth of the tissues in the inner lining of the stomach then this cancer comes into play.
In maximum cases of stomach cancer are known to be gastric lymphomas and because of that, this cancer has been divided into some subtypes which are known as lymphomas and mesenchymal tumors.
The common symptoms of stomach cancer which come on early stage is upper abdominal pain, nausea and the most common and early symptoms of stomach cancer is loss of appetite whereas the later symptoms of stomach cancer may include paleness of skin and turning yellow and also the eyes are affected, blood in the stool and vomiting are the common signs that we also see in some of the other types of cancer.
Heartburn, nausea, loss of appetite and abdominal pain and yellowing of the skin, vomiting, pale eyes, difficulty in eating or swallowing of food and blood in the stool are some of the later signs of stomach cancer.
Breast Cancer –
When there is abnormal growth of cells in the mammary gland or breasts of women, and because of that there is a significant change in the size of the breasts and the shape also gets deformed it can be seen as a lump in the breast.
The breast cancer is the leading types of cancer in women globally which holds the counting of 25% and more and as per as Census of 2012, there were 1.68 million of new cases found worldwide and leading to 522000 deaths.
The number itself signifies the effect of this deadly disease over us same as like prostate cancer and skin cancer.
So, the numbers itself says how lethal breast cancer can become if it is not properly taken care of in the early stage.
On the other hand, the story is different in the case of developed countries as it is 100 times more common cancer in women than men.
Some of the common symptoms of breast cancer are dimpling of the skin, leakage of certain fluids from the nipples also some kind of red patch that evolves on the skin.
like skin cancer the some of the treatments for breast cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy targeted therapy and radiation therapy which is common as other types of cancer, as these are the some of the possible ways to treat and minimise the threat caused by breast cancer.
Colon Cancer –
Colon has many glands in it which is responsible for most of the works related to the fluids and water absorbing cells, the colon gland are simple and tubular in looks and it’s a mixture of mucus-secreting goblet cells and also the water absorbing cells are also present here.
Some of the common treatment for colon cancer is surgery and chemotherapy and blood in stool, change in bowel habits, dark stool from digested blood and severe constipation are the symptoms of colon cancer.
Lung Cancer –
Considered to be one of the deadliest types of cancer and according to the studies, almost 80% of the cases of lung cancer belongs to adenocarcinoma, the origin of this cancer is from peripheral lung tissue, the maximum cases of these types of cancer of lungs occur due to smoking, and smoking of any kind of tobacco leads to these type of lung cancer.
Chest pain, wheezing sound while exhaling air, coughing, coughing up blood and difficulty in swallowing the food are the common symptoms of lung cancer.
Diathermy, chemotherapy, surgery, laser therapy, microwave ablation, radiofrequency ablation, radiotherapy and follow-up are some of the treatments for lung cancer.
Bile duct cancer –
Bile is one of the most important substances which is being required for good digestion of food, the bile is being secreted by the liver and goes to the intestine through various pathways and ducts.
One of the most gettable types of cancer in the society after skin cancer, prostate cancer, and breast cancer.
Vaginal Cancer –
The vaginal cancer is not so abundant in nature as the cases of vaginal cancer are very much less in number as compared to the other cancers, basically in women’s we get to see the squamous cell carcinoma.
The treatment for vaginal cancer can be done through surgery or also with the therapy of pelvic radiation.
The common symptoms of the vaginal cancer are vaginal bleeding, painful urination, pain during sexual intercourse and also a pain in the pelvic area.
Urachus Cancer –
The urachus is basically a canal or a pathway that helps in draining of urinary bladder of the fetus that runs through the umbilical cord.
In many of the cases because of this there is a failure of the urachus and because of that it leaves the urachus open, and because of this there is a leakage of urine through the umbilicus, and sometimes if detected early it can be treated by surgery.
2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma –
There are different types of cancer that results in the occurring of squamous cells the other name of this cancer is an epidermoid carcinoma, the most common types of the cancer are as follows:
Thyroid Cancer –
Thyroid cancer or squamous-cell thyroid cancer carcinoma (SCTC), is one of the rare types of cancer (malignant neoplasm of the thyroid gland), one of the most uncommon things of SCTC is that the cells are not found in the normal thyroid so its origin is not so clear.
FNAC, radiological examination, and immunohistochemistry are performed as an additional test and formation of a lump in the neck and along with swelling are the common symptoms of thyroid cancer.
Esophagus Cancer –
These types of cancer can be caused because of two causes either due to squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinomas, it occurs in the part closer to the stomach and difficulty in eating and swallowing is one of the common signs of esophagus cancer, It spreads quickly so chemotherapy and radiotherapy are commonly used for this purpose same as skin cancer and breast cancer.
Penis Cancer –
Scientifically called as human papillomavirus(HPV), basically, the HPV 16 and HPV 18 are one of the reasons for the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.
Bowen’s disease, Erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowenoid papulosis are the three carcinomas associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.
3. Adenosquamous Carcinoma –
These are the types of cancer that contain hybrid cells, as it contains two types of cells that are the squamous cells and gland-like cells. And these type of the cells is formed at least 10% of the volume of the tumor.
4. Anaplastic Carcinoma-
It is the heterogeneous set of carcinomas of high grade and these tumors are referred as anaplastic or also as undifferentiated carcinomas and also considered to be one of the most aggressive malignancy, as till date there is no successful therapy for this disease like the other types of cancer, most of the patients die within a year or so.
It basically occurs in the thyroid or in iodine sufficient areas.
5. Large Cell Lung Carcinoma –
Commonly called as LCC is a group of mixed group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasm’s which lacks the basic architectural features of the small cell carcinoma.
It compromises of 5% to 10% of all types of lung cancer, according to the studies the risk of large cell lung carcinoma rises with the previous history tobacco consumption or smoking.
6. Small Cell Carcinoma-
Small cell carcinoma or oat cell carcinoma is one of the types of highly malignant cancer and it arises within the lungs and in some of the cases, it has also been seen that it can affect the other body parts too like prostate, gastrointestinal tract, and cervix.
The small cell carcinoma has higher growth rate and earlier development of metastases, the common symptoms include in these types of cancer are a cough rapid weight loss and dyspnoea, the common site where the small cell carcinoma is present are liver, bone, and brain.
Sarcomas or sarcomata is one of the types of cancer that arises from the evolved cells of mesenchymal, and the composition of malignant tumors are made up of fat, muscle, vascular and cancellous bone.
But whereas on the other hand the malignant tumor originating from the epithelial cell are called as carcinoma, the human sarcomas are very much rarely found.
According to their type of tissues and their functions, there are different names given to the different types of sarcomas which are liposarcoma which signifies fat, osteosarcoma which represents bone, cartilage is being represented by chondrosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma resembles smooth muscles.
The sarcomas are treated according to the grade like the low-grade sarcomas are treated surgically, radiation therapy and also chemotherapy, whereas the intermediate and high-grade tumors are more likely to undergo metastasis so they have to be treated accordingly.
Chemotherapy is one of the effective ways to treat this type of cancer as before the use of chemotherapy the expectancy rate of survival from this deadly disease was around 20%.
But after the inclusion of chemotherapy the rate has gone high to 60-70% which is quite an impressive figure to ponder.
There are many types of sarcomas which are as follows:
- Sarcoma botryoids
- Askin’s tumor
- Malignant hemangioendothelioma
- Malignant Schwannoma
- Soft tissue sarcomas
The most of the common treatment o sarcomas include surgery like limb-sparing surgery and along with surgery the chemotherapy is also widely used as it helps in improving the prognosis of many patients.
Sarcomas are one of the rarest of the cancers that we get to see, hear or study in our day to day life as sarcomas represent about one percent of the 1.5 millions of new cancer diagnoses in the United States of America each year.
Lymphoma and leukemia-
These are the two types of cancer that arise and originates from blood, as children’s are the most common victims of leukemia as it accounts 30% of it.
Whereas lymphoma is the type of blood cell tumors and lymphoma originates and evolves from the white blood cells or lymphocytes.
Enlarged lymph’s nodes, unintended weight loss, itching in various parts of the body, feeling sick and tired, fever and sweating in the regular interval are some of the common signs and symptoms of lymphoma.
There are many subtypes of lymphoma but the most common of them and also the deadliest of them are as follows:
- Hodgkin’s lymphomas
- Non- Hodgkin’s lymphomas
Out of 100, a total of 90% of the cases are found to be Non- Hodgkin’s lymphomas, and whereas the other one is not so commonly found.
Risk factors of Hodkin’s lymphomas include Epstein- Barr virus and also the family background of the parents are also seen in this case, whereas in another one the risk factors include infection with the human T-lymphotropic virus, autoimmune disease and also HIV-AIDS.
The common treatment for these types of cancer also involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery and targeted therapy same as skin cancer and breast cancer.
The treatment of both the types of lymphomas is different as the treatment also depends on the grade of the tumor as well, as a high-grade tumor will be highly responsive to the treatment as well.
Burkitt lymphoma is one of the examples of high-grade lymphomas; the lymphomas are curable if they are being detected at the early stage.
The lymphomas or most commonly known as the blood cancer throughout the world represents around 5.3% of the all the cancers around the globe, as according to the census around 55.6% is the total share of blood cancer in the United States of America.
Germ cell tumor-
As the name only suggests the germ cell cancer originates from the germ’s cell, as in most of the cases these cells can be cancerous and also noncancerous tumors.
As in the most of the cases the germs cells normally occurs in the interior part of the ovary and the testis, and also there are some of the cases where the germ cells originate outside the gonads(ovary and testis) that may be due to some of the defects during birth.
The main cause of the spread of germ cells is because of the abnormal migration of the cells during a process called embryogenesis.
The germ cell tumors are being classified into two types which are as follows:
- Germinomatous – This is also called as seminomatous germ cell tumors or GGCT and SGST, this also includes germinoma.
- Nongerminomatous- This is also called nonseminomatus germ cell tumors or NGGCT and NSGCT, as it is the mixture of pure and mixed germ cell tumors.
The mixed germ cell tumors occur in many different forms, and one of the most common forms is teratoma along with endodermal sinus tumor.
As these germ cells occur both inside and outside the gonads (ovary and testis) so it can be also found in the neck, inside the cranium, inside of the mouth, pelvis, ovary, and testis.
30% of the ovarian tumors are found in females, the germ cell tumor is commonly present in women of younger age, and 60% of the ovarian tumors are of germ cell type.
Ovarian cystectomy or oophorectomy are some of the treatment methods of germ cell tumors in women’s, as most of the cases of the patients are needed to be treated with the combination of chemotherapy for at least 3 cycles.
The most commonly used chemotherapy to treat germ cell tumors is called PEB, and this also includes bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
Blastoma is one of the types of cancer which is more common in children’s, which is caused by malignancies in the precursor cells, which are also blasts.
The main causes of blastoma are not known yet but it is believed that it occurs due to the developmental genetic error not because of any external factors.
The diagnosis of blastoma takes a relatively similar kind of approaches same like the other cancers and biopsy, blood tests are some ways to detect the disease in the body.
Blastoma can be treated as same as the other types of cancer like by giving radiation therapy and chemotherapy along with the surgical procedures.
Some of the common types of cancer (blastoma) are as follows:
It’s the tumor in the central nervous system and one of the most common cancers in children.
It’s a tumor of a nerve cell located just outside of the brain and it is also found in the adrenal glands.
This is commonly known as kidney cancer or Wilms tumor.
This cancer affects the long bones of the body especially the teenage boys are mostly affected in common tongue it is also called as bone cancer.
It’s one of the rare kind of cancers, it affects the posterior fossa, and it also affects the young adults and children.
This kind of tumors occurs in the gonads (testis in males and ovary in females) in the cases of abnormal sexual development.
It’s a tumor and it develops in the cerebellum of the brain.
It’s an adipose tissue tumor (fat tissue tumor) and found in extreme cases and mostly the boys under the age of 5 years are affected by it.
It’s a tumor of pancreas also affecting children’s between the age of 1 and 8 years.
It’s the cancer of the pineal region of the brain.
A tumor of bone, generally found in the spine almost always in childhood to young adulthood.
It’s a tumor of an eye.
It’s a rare malignant type of chest tumor and this is also found in children under the age of 5 years.
Cancer of salivary glands.
The blood tests, biopsies, ultrasound scans, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans and radioisotope scans are some of the tests by which we can check whether we have any of the above-mentioned types of cancer.
Chemo and radiation therapy are given in any of the types of blastoma and because of that many of the incurable cases are getting cured and the cost of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may not be in the affordable range for many people in our country as cancer can happen to anyone.
The overall survival rate of surviving hepatoblastoma is 59% whereas it is 94% high in the case of retinoblastoma.
Hence, these were the several types of cancer that we know and people suffer and die on a daily basis in our country and also across the globe, as none of being should have this deadly disease.
In our country, many of the people die not because they have cancer but for the reason, they don’t have a heavy pocket to pay the bills of the hospitals, as cancer is an expensive affair and some die just because they don’t get treated in best hospitals of our country.
As prevention is better than cure and so is the right information, so for more updates about health-related issues do visit healthlove.in