What is papillary thyroid carcinoma?
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is basically a type of thyroid cancer. Every patient suffers from different kinds of thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is a silent disease because symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma are very common as any other viral infections.
Thyroid cancer is a kind of carcinoma found in both men and women, most commonly in women.
Most common kind of thyroid cancers are defined in the following ways:-
- Papillary thyroid carcinoma
- Follicular thyroid carcinoma
- Medullary thyroid carcinoma
- Anaplastic carcinoma
- Thyroid lymphoma
Here in this article, I will elucidate everything about papillary thyroid cancer. So, let’s begin with a simple question, what is papillary thyroid carcinoma?
Readers must be thinking that we have a single thyroid gland, which gets affected from so many kinds of carcinomas.
Papillary thyroid cancer is the communal kind of thyroid cancer found in both men and women. It begins from the follicular cells which distresses only one part of the thyroid gland.
“When a solid, abnormal form of sac appears in the thyroid gland, apart from the normal tissues is termed as papillary thyroid carcinoma.”
Just like other categories of cancer, I found thyroid cancer as the most uncommon kind of cancer present in both men and women.
All over the world, there are more than 80 percent cases of thyroid cancer, out of which papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common. Survival rate is high with patients suffering from papillary thyroid cancer.
According to researcher’s estimation, we found that around 80 to 90 percent patients survive for 10 years with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
When an irregular mass of sac spread to lymph nodes of the neck are usually declared as small papillary thyroid carcinoma. Around 50 percent patients are detected with small papillary thyroid cancer.
When abnormal cancer cells spread to other parts of the body, especially bones and lungs are termed as large papillary thyroid carcinoma. With this carcinoma, 75 percent patients are affected.
Papillary thyroid cancer has a low mortality rate as it is highly curable in terms of treatment.
Types of papillary thyroid carcinoma
Papillary thyroid cancer is the most likely kind of cancer in women. Individuals whose age lies between 30 to 50 years are more often in causing papillary thyroid cancer.
This is a kind of carcinoma which spreads very slowly but if extended from the lymph nodes to other organs, may damage the functions of bones and lungs.
Though papillary thyroid cancer or carcinoma is the most usual cancer for older age people, yet they are highly treatable.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is further divided into two types. They are as follows:-
- Small papillary thyroid carcinoma– This is kind of cancer in which cancer cells or a sac has stuck with the origin point and has not spread other than the lymph nodes of the neck. This is less risky than another type of carcinoma.
- Large papillary thyroid carcinoma– This is also known as metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. This is a kind of cancer in which cancerous tissues extended to other organs i.e. from lymph nodes to bones, lungs and many more, destroying the utilities of it.
Causes of papillary thyroid carcinoma
We have discussed above that there are 4 types of thyroid cancers. Among which papillary thyroid cancer is the most common.
Here we will discuss that what are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of any kind of thyroid cancer, together with papillary thyroid cancer?
Following are the significant causes of papillary thyroid carcinoma:-
- Family background of thyroid cancer.
- If we have any personal or family background of genetic symptoms such as Cowden syndrome.
- If we have any personal or hereditary cause of goiter.
- If our body especially head or neck has exposed to some radiation therapy.
Above are some risk factors that increase the chances of papillary thyroid cancer or carcinoma. This cancer is mostly found in women rather than men. So, if you are women, then this would lead to suffering from papillary thyroid cancer.
Another main reason is age. A person whose age falls in between 30-50 years has the highest risk of causing papillary thyroid cancer.
So, if your doctor diagnosed you with some suspicious thyroid nodule, then do take this cause scary and ask him/her for immediate treatment.
Symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma
There are varieties of cancers that may affect our body like anything, but being so severe does not disclose its symptoms at an early stage. Likewise, papillary thyroid cancer is one out of it.
Though papillary thyroid cancer or carcinoma is not in a habit of disclosing its symptoms, yet I am here to describe you some symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma which if detected, must be treated as early as possible.
Following are some vital symptoms of papillary thyroid cancer:-
- A tumor in the neck is one out of the symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma which can be felt by touch. But this does not tell us whether the tumor is benign or malignant. For this, you can go for biopsy for diagnosing or if not correctly analyzed than ultrasound is the next step for complete assurance.
- Enlargement of lymph nodes due to swelling is another sign of papillary thyroid cancer. When a tumor grows, it spread to the lymph nodes because of which it becomes swollen. If this occurs and the reason behind is some normal health issue, then those swollen lymph nodes will turn back to its normal size. But if this problem continues for a prolonged period, then an immediate screening is required as it is considered to be the symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
- Trouble in swallowing is also treated as one among severe symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Because of presence of tumor, patient suffers some kind of difficulty in swallowing food. If this problem continues for an extended period, then a random visit to a doctor is necessary.
- Respiratory problem is related to some difficulty while breathing. Thyroid is an endocrine system which produces and secretes hormones that helps in regulating the temperature of the body. Sometimes, because of expansion of tumor, extra efforts are required in breathing. However, inhaling and exhaling becomes difficult, as soon as the lump grows.
A woman has a habit of ignoring their health problems, but sometimes this may took her to a deadliest cause. Symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma are not known at early stages but if detected, should be assisted immediately.
Prevention of papillary thyroid carcinoma
As we have discussed earlier that there are some risk factors of causing papillary thyroid cancer but they are untraceable. If we are not aware about the causes, then how come we will found out the preventive measure of symptoms of papillary thyroid carcinoma?
But according to our research, we have observed that individual’s those are highly exposed to radiation therapy have maximizes the chances of thyroid cancer, including papillary thyroid cancer.
So, in order to reduce this risk factor, doctors suggest people to avoid any kind of imaging tests until and unless the illness is damn serious. Less or negligible usage of radioactive rays increases the chances of avoidance of thyroid cancer.
If any member of the family has a genetic syndrome, then regular checkups will make us known about it. If that abnormal gene is detected in the body, then undergoing routine examinations will make us aware about that disorder at an early stage. Moreover, removal of thyroid gland will be treated as a safety measure before diagnosing the papillary thyroid cancer.
Prevention of papillary thyroid cancer is directly proportional to the causes of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Awareness of risk factors would increase the chances of prevention of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Consuming a meal enriched with high iodine will be treated as another prevention of papillary thyroid carcinoma. In deficiency of iodine in our body will maximize the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma Treatment
Curable rate of papillary thyroid cancer are very high and best treatable, if known at an early stage.
There are 2 most common papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment options recommended by the doctors, depending upon the size of the tumors and how far it is extended in our body.
Papillary thyroid cancer treatment is categorized in 3 ways:-
Radioactive iodine therapy
Papillary thyroid carcinomas are commonly small in size and spread very slowly. So, thyroidectomy surgery is not the remedy for this cause. Small tumors or lump can be cured by simply adopting the radioactive iodine therapy as a papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment. Complete removal of thyroid gland is of no importance as the tumor is minor in size and not protracted to other parts of the body.
Sometimes, this therapy is used after surgery, so as to as void the comeback of the tumors. This papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment helps in maximizing the levels of thyroid stimulating hormones which ultimately deteriorate the symptoms of cancer.
Radioactive iodine therapy is one of the best papillary thyroid carcinoma treatments for small size tumors. This kills the cancer cells of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy
As soon as a patient undergo with total thyroidectomy, his body will stop producing the hormones, which will turn you into a situation of hypothyroid.
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is the best treatment for curing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. T3 and T4 are the two kinds of hormones of thyroid gland. After having a total thyroidectomy as a papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment, doctor would pen down some oral pills or capsules as a supplement in producing the minimum level of hormones.
Surgery is the next step towards papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment. Thyroidectomy is the term which defines the surgical removal of thyroid gland.
Thyroidectomy is done in two ways- partial and total. Patients suffering from metastatic thyroid cancer undergo total thyroidectomy.
“Complete elimination of cancer cells or thyroid gland is done through total thyroidectomy.”
People are more favorable in undertaking total thyroidectomy rather than partial thyroidectomy. The reason behind this is that total thyroidectomy provides a complete assurance in removal of cancerous cells, thereby by removing the complete thyroid gland from the body. As the complete thyroid gland is removed in this procedure, so no more hormonal production and secretion is left.
“When only a portion of thyroid gland is detached from the body surgically is termed as partial thyroidectomy.”
Patients suffering from small tumors i.e. less than 1 cm undergoes with this papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment. Lobectomy is another name of partial thyroidectomy. This is adopted when cancer cells have not extended to other portions of the body. Thyroid still produces and secretes hormones because only a cancerous part is removed out of the gland.
Thyroid surgery also comes with some risks attached to it, but those are very infrequent. Doctors suggest these surgeries depending upon the growth pattern of tumor and its affected area. It is a completely safe and operative method for papillary carcinoma treatment.
Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma treatment
In recent years, follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer are increasingly day by day. This is the most common type in terms of histology.
Papillary thyroid cancer are further subdivided into two types:-
Classical papillary thyroid carcinoma
Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma
Patients with follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma are the second most discussed carcinoma. Out of this mostly are benign and found in patients ranging from 9 – 22.5 percent.
Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma is identified with the nuclear features of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with the follicular outline of cells.
Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma pathology
There are various clinical features of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This is diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
Pathology test of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma represents nodules as painless, sac in neck, which usually occurs as sensation of cold.
Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma
Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma is another form of papillary cancer in which tumors present are mostly of benign nature but may become cancerous if left untreated.
Findings of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma are done with the procedure of sonography. If we found some outer covering thick, echoes, and septations, then this would be a symptom of causing cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma
Metastatic is the word that itself tell us that cancer cells are no more in the place of origination, they have invaded to other portions of the body.
“When malignant tissues destroy the utilities of other organs in the body, then this is termed as metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.”
Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma is often treatable and curable rate rises to 90 percent all over the world. Total thyroidectomy is the only way for treating the metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma histology
Gentle stem of epithelial cells are revealed as histology of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Follicular shape, solid tumors are mostly found in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Psamomma bodies are mostly found after the formation of necrosis of papillary structures. These bodies seem like rounded shape.
Nuclear overlap demonstrates nuclei of the neoplastic cells.
Nuclear grooves are the most noticeable finding in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma is one the most common cancer but it does not come under the category of life-threatening disease. Life expectancy increases as soon as we experience symptoms.
Papillary thyroid carcinoma or cancer is a curable disease but should be taken as a severe cause both by the patient and doctor. Symptoms are untraceable but if known at an early stage will increase the life span of an individual.
Successful treatment is associated with the precautions as well. So, there are some dos and don’ts which should be obeyed by the patients recommended by the doctor.
Sometimes, ignorance of any minor thing may turn into a major cause. However, knowing symptoms at an advance stage may turn the papillary thyroid carcinoma into a fatal disease.
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